This course offers to examine the history and condition of Christians -- a majority of whom were the Greek Orthodox people (Rum) -- in Anatolia and the Balkans under the Ottoman Empire. From some basic concepts of non-Muslim historiography (such as zımmi or millet), the course will move to the various ways in which historians have interpreted the Christian presence under Ottoman rule. Byzantium as a state was very closely associated with Orthodox Christianity and the Greek language. What did its demise mean for Orthodox Christians and their institutions ? How did Ottoman social, economic and administrative structures absorb and influence Christians; in turn, how did they participate in producing and re-producing the imperial framework ? Special attention will be paid to : communal life and institutions, the place of Christians in Ottoman administration and imperial networks, the Phanariots, the rise of the Greek bourgeoisie, the emergence of the Greek nation-state, Greek education, and the contribution of Christians to Ottoman urban space and architecture.